Stig Östlund

onsdag, januari 16, 2019

Everything you need to know about basophils [svenska: basofiler]


Vi försöker lära oss lite om en bit av vit blodkropp men kanske bör börja med att googla "vita blodkroppar'  



Basophils are white blood cells from the bone marrow that play a role in keeping the immune system functioning correctly.

Doctors may order basophil level tests to help diagnose certain health problems. If basophil levels are low, this may be a sign of an allergic reaction or another condition. High basophil levels may indicate an autoimmune condition or one of several types of blood disorder.
In this article, learn more about the function of basophils and what abnormal basophil levels mean.

What are basophils?

Basophils



[Basofiler är en typ av vita blodkropparBasofiler är en typ av vita blodkroppar



Basophils are a type of white blood cell, which are vital components of the immune system.
The body makes different types of white blood cell, which are vital components of the immune system.
White blood cells help keep the body healthy by fighting off invading germs, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
Basophils are a type of white blood cell called a granulocyte. There are other forms of granulocyte, such as neutrophils and eosinophils.
Granulocyte cells contain granules, which they use to secrete important substances.
The granules inside basophils contain heparin, histamine, and other molecules that play a role in inflammation.

Function

Basophils are necessary for the immune system's natural response to invaders, such as infectious germs.
The body's response to allergens also involves basophils. When a potentially harmful allergen enters the body, the immune system responds by trying to isolate and eliminate the allergen.
When responding to an allergen, basophils that sustain damage will release histamine, which is partially responsible for inflammation during an allergic reaction.
Additionally, basophils play an integral role in preventing blood clotting. The heparin inside the cells is a form of natural blood thinner that helps keep the blood flowing through the body.

Tests

Doctors believe that the role of basophils in the body is reactionary, meaning that their number will generally only rise or fall due to an invader or underlying chronic issue.
This characteristic allows doctors to use basophil tests to help them identify underlying conditions and severe allergic reactions.
Doctors can use a complete blood count (CBC) to check a person's basophil levels. A basophil count that is higher or lower than the normal range may prompt them to order additional tests.
A white blood cell count (WBC) test may be necessary to find the absolute basophil count in some cases. This test can help doctors get a better picture of the range of basophils in the blood.
Doctors may also order a specific test called a basophil activation test (BAT) to check for particular allergens.
During the BAT, medical professionals in a laboratory apply potential allergens to a sample of the person's blood. If the person has an allergy, the basophils in their blood sample will activate specific molecules.
2016 study found that the BAT is highly accurate in confirming food allergies. It may also be helpful for monitoring the immune system's response to food allergens.
The BAT is a low-risk test compared with the oral food challenge test, which has the potential to trigger a dangerous allergic reaction.

Normal range

Although they have an essential function in the immune system, basophils only make up a small percentage of the total number of white blood cells. In a normal test result, they may contribute to less than 0.5 percent of the total white blood cell count.

Causes of high levels

Blood tests may reveal basophil levels that are too high. The medical term for this is basophilia, and there are several possible causes:

Autoimmune inflammation

Basophils rheumatoid arthritis


High levels of basophils may indicate rheumatoid arthritis.
High levels of basophils may indicate chronic inflammation in the body.
Immune reactions or autoimmune conditions that cause chronic inflammation include:

Hypothyroidism

High basophil levels may also be a sign of low thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. This condition occurs when the body does not produce enough thyroid hormones, which may cause some bodily functions to slow down.
Hypothyroidism can cause a variety of symptoms, including:
Some people with hypothyroidism may also notice changes in their hair or skin. The skin might become dry or rough, while the hair may turn coarse and brittle and break very easily.

Myeloproliferative disorders

Myeloproliferative disorders affect white blood cells and may also cause very high basophil levels.
Myeloproliferative disorders include:
  • Myelofibrosis: In people with this condition, fibrous tissue begins to replace the cells that make blood in the bone marrow. This disruption may lead to deformed or misshapen red blood cells and anemia.
  • Essential thrombocythemia: This condition causes the body to make too many platelets, leading to excessive blood clotting. It may also lead to circulation and nerve problems.
  • Polycythemia vera: This is a blood condition that causes the bone marrow to overproduce red blood cells.

Cancer

In very rare cases, high basophil levels may indicate certain types of blood cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma.

Causes of low levels

Basopenia is the medical term for abnormally low basophil levels.
When a basophil releases its granules in response to an invader or inflammation, it becomes empty. As an empty basophil will not show up on blood tests, the test may show a lower number of these cells.
Conditions that can cause low levels of basophils include:

Hyperthyroidism

In people with hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland overproduces thyroid hormones, causing bodily functions to speed up.
Hyperthyroidism may cause noticeable signs and symptoms, such as:

Allergic reactions

Low levels of basophils may be due to the body reacting to an allergen, causing the basophils to release their histamine. Other signs of an allergic reaction include:
  • puffy, red eyes
  • a runny or stuffy nose
  • excess mucus
  • hives
Severe allergic reactions may cause a potentially life-threatening situation called anaphylaxis. Signs of anaphylaxis include:
  • swelling in the face, throat, or mouth
  • difficulty breathing
  • lightheadedness
  • wheezing
Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening. Anyone having an anaphylactic reaction should seek emergency medical attention.

Infections

Basophils are instrumental to immune system function, so low levels may also signal that the body is fighting an infection.
In these cases, a doctor may recommend medications or rest until the infection clears, after which they will order blood tests to get more accurate results.

Summary

Basophils make up a small percentage of white blood cells, but they play an essential role in the immune system. Basophil levels that are too high or too low may be a sign of an underlying condition.


There are many possible underlying causes of abnormal basophil levels. Once a doctor determines the reason for the high or low levels, they can advise on possible treatment options.






Je voudrais bien pouvoir te prendre
Mais il faut bien attendre
Le temps s'en va, je ne sais plus, tu n'es plus là
Je voudrais bien pouvoir te prendre, tu le sais bien
Mais ne veux rien comprendre
Le temps s'en va, je ne sais plus, je reste là
Quel est le moyen
Dis-moi pour te reprendre
Donne-moi la main
Je ne peux attendre
J'aimerais bien que tu me dises
Que tu n'es rien sans moi
Que je te rêve, te réalise, tout à la fois
Pourquoi faut-il toujours que tu te livres
Comme on livre un combat
Et que dans tes yeux ne se lise aucun signe d'émoi
Quel est le moyen
Dis-moi pour te reprendre
Donne-moi la main
Je ne peux attendre
Je rêve…

Broadcasting from Deep Space, a Mysterious Series of Radio Signals




The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment, or Chime, a radio telescope array in British Columbia. Soon after it was turned on last summer, it picked up a set of odd radio bursts from deep space.CreditCredit

Something is happening out there, and astronomers sure wish they knew what it was.
For the last several years, they have been teased and baffled by mysterious bursts of radio waves from the distant universe: pops of low-frequency radiation, emitting more energy than the sun does in a day, that occur randomly and disappear immediately. Nobody knows when these “fast radio bursts,” or F.R.B.s, will occur, or where exactly in the cosmos they are occurring.
More than 60 of these surprise broadcasts have been recorded so far. About the only thing astronomers agree on is that these signals probably are not extraterrestrials saying hello.
So it was big news a year ago when scientists found a repeating radio burster and tracked it to a dwarf galaxy 3 billion light-years from Earth. Subsequent observations suggested that the burst was generated by extremely powerful magnetic fields, most likely ruling out lasers from alien spaceships.
Now a group of astronomers from several Canadian universities have announced the discovery of a second radio repeater. The repeating bursts appeared last summer almost as soon as the team turned on and began tuning up a new telescope, the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment, or Chime, in British Columbia. The team announced the discovery in a pair of papers in Nature, and in a news conference at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle on Jan. 9.

The astronomers estimated that the new repeater is about 1.5 billion light-years away, roughly half the distance to the other repeater. The existence of a second repeater suggests that there are many more to be found, said Ingrid Stairs, an astrophysicist at the University of British Columbia, in a news release.
Beyond those details, astronomers have nary a clue. The data suggest that the radio waves from the bursts were scattered by whatever surrounds the sources. Perhaps the bursts originated in some dense clump of matter or gas, such as the remains of an exploded star. Or maybe they arose near the black holes at the hearts of distant galaxies, said Cherry Ng of the University of Toronto, who added that the burst had to have come from “some special place.”
Maybe we should thank our lucky stars once again that we do not live in such a “special place” in our own galaxy.

Derby



Lyon cherche à se refaire une santé à Toulouse avant le derby contre Saint-Étienne

L'OL (Olympique Lyonnais) se rend à Toulouse ce mercredi (19 heures) avec une double ambition : gagner à nouveau et bien préparer le derby contre Saint-Étienne, dimanche.


'Chercher' = söka. leta, söka få, söka vinna, uppsöka. 'Chercheur' = sökare (även kamerans sökare), forskare.
Ord värt att (försöka) lära sig snarast ?

'Refaire' =göra om, framalstra på nytt, återställa, reparera, återvinna, koka eller steka upp, oavgjort spel, reflexivt: repa sig, oavgjort spel


'Santé' = hälsa, sundhet, sundhetstillstånd 

Gagner = erövra, vinna, besegra, förtjäna, förvärva,
(upp)nå.

Det är ungefär 5 mil mellan Lyon och Saint Étienne
Saint Étienne är ligans (start 1932) meste segrare



The Olympique Lyonnais–AS Saint-Étienne rivalry, is a footballi rivalry between French clubs Olympique Lyonnais  and AS Saint-Étienne, with matches between them referred to as the Derby Rhône-AlpesDerby Rhônealpin or simply Le Derby. Both clubs are located in the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The term Derby du Rhône is sometimes used by French media, despite the city of Saint-Étienne not being located along the Rhône River nor in the Rhône département.


Loser


Han där i United States of America


tisdag, januari 15, 2019

"Min hund har dött."


Jag begravde honom i trädgården bredvid en rustad gammal maskin.  En dag kommer jag att vara med honom där, men nu har han gått med sin skrapa,

hans dåliga sätt och hans kalla näsa,
och jag, materialisten, som aldrig trodde
i någon lovad himmel i himlen
för någon människa,
Jag tror på en himmel som jag aldrig kommer in.
Ja, jag tror på en himmel för alla dogdom
där min hund väntar på min ankomst
vifta sin fläktliknande svans i vänskap.
Ai, jag talar inte om sorg här på jorden,
av att ha förlorat en följeslagare
som aldrig var servil. 
/Pablo Neruda

Sara Skyttedal


Låt oss följa denna unga kvinnas fortsatta karriär inom svensk politik och kanske också som EU-politiker.
Ja, jag säger då de...

Höghöjdseffekten


Höghöjdseffekten är den ytterligare påverkan på klimatet som flyg på hög höjd orsakar. Utöver utsläppen av koldioxid från förbränningen i flygplanets motorer ökar utsläppen av vattenånga och kväveoxider (NOx) på hög höjd växthuseffekten med en faktor 2,7.

Läs mer: http://www.klimatordlista.se/rfi-radiative-forcing-index/

måndag, januari 14, 2019

Klyftorna i vårt land fortsätter att öka


Västra Götalands regiondirektör Ann-Sofi Lodin (bilden), som kräver fortsatta besparingar på Sahlgrenska, tjänar mer än åtta undersköterskor. 

söndag, januari 13, 2019

F.B.I. Opened Inquiry Into Whether Trump Was Secretly Working on Behalf of Russia


Following President Trump’s firing of James B. Comey as F.B.I. director, the bureau grew increasingly concerned about whether the president’s actions constituted anti-American activity.

fredag, januari 11, 2019

Conjunction

In case you haven't noticed, the day is beginning with bright lights rising in the east. The sun? No. It's Venus and Jupiter, converging for a beautiful conjunction in the pre-dawn sky. Yesterday, Finazzi Antonio photographed the two planets shining through the rosy glow of sunrise in Colli di San Fermo, Italy:




"I saw them through the trees at dawn," he says. "What a beautiful view!"
In the mornings ahead, Venus and Jupiter will draw closer and closer together, putting on a better show with each successive sunrise. At closest approach on Jan. 22nd, they will be only 2.5 degrees apart--a double beacon in the dawn sky visible even from brightly-lit cities. 


This is a special conjunction. Not only are Venus and Jupiter the two brightest planets, but also they are converging while Venus is near its maximum elongation (greatest apparent distance) from the sun. As a result, the gathering is visible almost a full hour before daybreak.


It's also special because it is happening in Ophiuchus--the unofficial 13th constellation of the zodiac. Most people know of only twelve: Capricorn, Aquarius, Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio and Sagittarius. The sun passes through these constellations, one by one, throughout the year. They're the ancient signs of the zodiac.
Modern astronomers don't divide the sky the same way ancient astronomers did. According to today's star maps, the sun cuts through a 13th constellation, Ophiuchus the Serpent Bearer, between Nov. 30th and Dec. 17th--and this is where the conjunction is happening.
Finding Venus and Jupiter is easy. Wake up early, look southeast, and enjoy the show!

Ocean Warming Is Accelerating Faster Than Thought, New Research Finds

The escalating water temperatures are already killing off marine ecosystems, raising sea levels and making hurricanes more destructive.


torsdag, januari 10, 2019

Man kan undra om inte en staty a Trump kunde göra samma nytta som en mur ...
/Insändare i dagens Dagens Nyheter.
Mer effektivt vill jag, Stig, tillägga.

S.k. hedersförtryck

Helsingfors

Nästan var sjätte niondeklassare i Sveriges största städer lider av hedersförtryck

Disease and Famine as Weapons of War in Yemen .


Amir M. Mohareb, M.D., and Louise C. Ivers, M.D., M.P.H., D.T.M.&H

How can the medical community take stock of the humanitarian disaster in Yemen? The 3-year-old war intermittently garners attention from Western media — for example, in August, when an air strike on a school bus killed more than 50 civilians, mostly children — but is woefully [bedrövligt] underreported relative to the magnitude of the ongoing crisis. Such neglect highlights the numbing of our collective sensitivity to atrocity [illdåd]. Although the human toll of any war is dreadful, the infliction of suffering in Yemen has particularly toxic characteristics that we believe demand attention from health care providers worldwide: the destruction of health care facilities and the spread of disease and hunger as apparent means of waging war.


A Mobile Phone Tower Destroyed in Sa’ada, July 2018.
Yemen was beset with widespread poverty and an ailing health care system when this conflict began. Most health indicators ranked in the bottom quartile of the world, with 1 in 25 children not surviving to the age of 5. In March 2015, after the Houthis, a faction based in the north of the country, took over Sana’a (the capital city), a coalition led by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and supported by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, launched air strikes in the country to overturn the Houthis. In more than 3 years of air strikes, Yemeni hospitals and clinics have continued to be destroyed, both indiscriminately and sometimes apparently deliberately [medvetet]. With access to health care almost entirely eliminated owing to bombings and blockades, infections have spread as — at best indirect and at worst direct — weapons of war.

A massive cholera outbreak is the most obvious example of the devastating impact of the war on health. It is suspected that more than 1.1 million people have had cholera, and at least 2000 people have died from it, nearly 20% of them children under 5 years old.1 Geospatial patterns of cases of diarrheal disease reveal alignment of the spread of cholera with patterns of aerial bombardment by the Saudi-led coalition.2 Civilians living in Houthi-held areas had higher cholera attack rates and higher case fatality rates between September 2016 and March 2018 than those in government-held areas.2

The Saudi-led coalition — heavily supported by the United States through munitions sales, military training, and aerial refueling — has bombed both medical facilities and water-treatment centers in these areas. Within the first few months of the war, a major water-treatment plant outside Sana’a was out of operation because its electrical grid had been bombed. Subsequent [senare] restriction of fuel imports by a Saudi-led blockade caused the facility to lose all power and become inoperable, according to UNICEF. Then the deadly grip of diarrheal disease took hold. Shockingly, water-treatment plants and sewage systems continue to be bombed. UNICEF reports that between March and July 2018, water-treatment facilities in the Sa’ada governorate were repeatedly attacked, which left much of the nearby civilian population without safe drinking water and caused thousands of dollars of damages to water-treatment projects.

Direct bombardment of medical facilities has triggered the spread of disease and put health care personnel and relief workers in danger since the start of the war. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) reported that 39 hospitals were bombed during the first 7 months of the conflict despite the fact that they were clearly marked as medical centers and their GPS coordinates had been shared with Saudi authorities. Both MSF and Physicians for Human Rights have reported that assaults on hospitals, mobile clinics, ambulances, and cholera treatment centers continue to occur.

Targeting of health care facilities by warring parties is strictly prohibited by the fourth Geneva Convention, which also stipulates the need for free mobility of medical personnel within a conflict zone to carry out humanitarian assistance. Yet humanitarian organizations report that medical staff and supplies have been restricted from reaching the populations in greatest need.

Diphtheria is another ancient scourge [gissel] that has emerged in Yemen as a result of the war. The 48 reported cases in 19 governorates (according to the World Health Organization) probably reflect a larger unmeasured epidemic, given that the country currently has limited diagnostic capacity and few functional health centers. More than 3000 cases of measles were reported in 2018,3 probably largely attributable to a documented drop in immunization rates in Yemen since 2013 for all childhood vaccines.4 There is serious concern about a potential outbreak of polio.

Saudi-led blockades of ports of entry to Yemen have severely limited the ability of international agencies to support the local response to outbreaks, prevented fuel importation, and exacerbated [förvärrat]food insecurity to the point of near-famine. Even after a blockade in late 2017 was eased, importation of essential medicines, vaccines, and health care equipment remains limited. The problem has only worsened since attacks on the port city of Hodeida in June 2018 strangulated the entry point for much of the country’s food imports. Currently, half of health facilities are reported to be nonfunctional; 14 million people are at risk of starvation, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs; and the value of the local currency, the Yemeni rial, has depreciated rapidly. This situation makes a dire public health emergency almost impossible to address.

With so many humanitarian crises facing us, why should physicians give special attention to the war in Yemen? The Yemeni medical disasters are man-made, with outbreaks of infectious diseases and starvation following bombing. The war has been characterized by a violation of medical neutrality — the principles and laws protecting health care workers and hospitals from being targets in conflict. As hospitals have been attacked, the country’s remaining physicians and nongovernmental organizations have endured sometimes deadly risks to their own safety.

When health care facilities and the movement of health care workers are consistently the casualties of a war, condemnation from medical and public health communities around the world should follow. How can we accept these violations of our duty to care? We believe that physicians everywhere have a special responsibility to advocate for a complete cessation [upphörande] of attacks on civilian and health care infrastructure, an end to blockades on Yemen’s ports of entry, and full access by humanitarian actors to all parts of the country. The U.S. government has agreed to more than $100 billion in arms sales to the Saudi military, in addition to ongoing logistic and diplomatic support. As evidence mounts that these armaments are used in civilian attacks, including on health facilities,5 we ought to advocate for the United States to suspend military support for the war in Yemen, as was proposed in a bipartisan Senate resolution this year.

Impartial bodies such as the International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission — established to respond to incidents related to international humanitarian law — should be allowed to investigate attacks on medical facilities and personnel committed by parties on either side of the conflict. Whether the devastation has resulted from deliberate targeting or gross negligence, the perpetrators of such attacks ought to face legal repercussions [återverkningar].

These responses are, in our view, the only just course of action and are the way to erect necessary safeguards for the future. We rely on humanitarian programs and on the principle of medical neutrality as a salve for the painful consequences of armed conflict. The moral responsibility for this catastrophe is collective. Those of us whose governments support the war’s attack on civilians and civilian infrastructure through their direct actions or through their inaction at the United Nations Security Council can do more than stand by silently wondering what the warring parties hope to inherit at the end of the day. A generation of Yemeni people is being sacrificed.

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available at NEJM.org.
This article was published on November 21, 2018, at NEJM.org.

tisdag, januari 08, 2019

Öron- men även ögonfröjd



Americans Feel the Bite of Shutdown; Trump Plans to Address Nation


Members of the Secret Service on Monday outside
 the White House. Virtually every employee
with the agency is required to
work during the shutdown.

Bloggarkiv